Five Easy Steps of Research Paper Writing

When writing the research paper it involves a lot of investigations and technicalities on a particular topic. Different ideas are collected from a number of sources and they are analyzed and interpreted further. There are some easy steps involved in the writhing a research paper some of them are:
– First thing that you are required to do is find a topic for the research. Make sure that you have sufficient material and information on the topic of research.
– Collect all the available information from different books, internet, encyclopedia, magazines and many more.
– Now you will have to make bibliography cards so that there is a documentation of all the information collected. Make a rough or a basic structure of the essay so that you can have a general idea of what the paper will look like.
– After a rough layout of the paper is done make the changes according to your requirements so that the presentation of the document is systematic yet attractive. Like adding or removing the subtitles or heading and subtopics etc.
– Once the layout of the research paper is completed then you will have to make the title page, content page. On the first page generally the name of the paper, writer’ name, date etc are written. The table of the content should be prepared in such a way that all the main or sub topics of the research are well presented so that they are easy to comprehend.
As there is a pre-determined and a strict format in research paper writing so you need to be very careful and choose the best available material from different sources and just follow these simple steps to make your research paper systematic and informative.

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Custom Writing Services: Market Overview

Market identification
Custom writing services market is a sector of the e-commerce industry. Custom writing services are fee-based.
Market size
The precise size of custom writing services market is unknown, though some rough estimate could be made. The number of competitors in the market approaches nearly 200. It is also known that around 30 percent of organizations in the industry have annual turnover amounting to $120,000 approximately, whereas other 70 percent have almost twice as low annual turnover. Total market size is estimated at $10,800,000 annually. The size of the market in relation to the economy is yet unknown.
Segmentation
Segmentation is the process of allocation of particular homogeneous sub-markets within a heterogeneous market. A market is a multitude of sub-markets that have similar motivations.
In the case with the market concerned, segmentation is interpreted as follows. Companies that operate within the market could be divided in accordance to specialization differences into such categories: (a) generally-oriented companies; (b) particularly-oriented companies. Generally-oriented companies are those that produce custom-written papers on a wide variety of topics. As a rule, such organizations hire writers representing different specialties or simply those able to perform on appropriate level in one or several fields. Companies ascribed to another organizational category usually operate within a narrower framework. In the market there are companies that offer custom-written papers exclusively on math, physics, sociology, the African-Americans, William Shakespeare, Charlotte Bronte, etc.
Other products and services offered by the industry representatives include proofreading and editing services, and pre-written papers.
It is noteworthy that there are companies in the market that offer both custom-written and pre-written papers. This, however, may have nothing to do with violation of ethics, but what about privacy of those students who previously ordered a custom-written paper, which might have been later re-sold to another student?
Growth speed
Growth rates of the market are varying over the time. Thus, in 2000 there were nearly 25-30 companies offering custom-written/pre-written essays, term papers, cases studies, and other types of research papers. Over the 5-year period the number of companies in the market grew up to nearly two hundreds.
The leap in growth rates of the market is noticed to take place in 2003-2004 when sudden change in pricing occurred. The number of companies in the market increased almost 30 percent and now estimates around 80 companies. This leap was probably caused by the tendency towards ecommerce solutions being new to hoards of entrepreneurs in a number of developing countries like India, Ukraine, Poland and other countries. Companies headquartered in these countries began offering similar services but with lower fees as compared to those located in the U.S., Canada, or Australia. More on pricing policies see in Pricing.
Today, market’s growth speed is rather low as the market is full-fledged due to a variety of services offered by market participants.
Geographical distribution of services
It is worth mentioning that the researched market is a subdivision of ecommerce industry. This gives ground to conclude that either products or services produced by industry’s parties are of intangible character rather than of tangible. This especially concerns custom writing services market, which offers its customers intangible products delivered to them mostly via email.
It should be clear that no matter where a company holds its general/backup office, it operates worldwide.
The only principle that regulates geographical distribution of custom-written papers is linguistic attachment. Among major countries using the service are: the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and some European and Asian countries.
Seasonal character of the market
Another aspect of the market is its seasonality. Seasonal character of the examined market is sharply defined. As services offered by the market participants are oriented at student needs throughout the academic year only, the season of active sales almost coincides with the academic year. The first half of September – usually passive – is compensated with several weeks in June.
Such seasonality of the market explains its instability of prices. It was noticed that prices for services increase throughout the year with peaks in December – January and April – May; and drop dramatically during the summer season.
Customers/Clients
Customers of online services such as custom writing services are usually students of high schools, colleges, and Universities, of 16 to 25 years old. As pricing in the market is relatively low, target group of the market covers the so-called middle class and higher. A research shows that in 2005 from 14 percent to 23 percent of students (considering seasonality correction) have in due time applied to custom writing services (IAS, 2005). In other words, one-seventh to one-fourth of students has bought at least one paper during 2004-2005 academic years. The same research provides data that gives ground to conclude about the growth of the market. It is declared that in 2003 peak rate of students who applied to the service at least once was 25 percent, whereas in 2005 it is estimated to reach 36 percent (IAS, 2005).
Customer loyalty
Customer loyalty is obviously a behavior demonstrated by frequent or systematic purchases of a company’s product or service. Customer loyalty could be achieved through customer-friendly pricing policies, various discount programs, incentive plans etc. Customer loyalty is also an aspect of a company’s customer retention or loyalty programs.
Customer retention programs are usually complex systems that include two or more elements listed above. As regards the market of custom writing services, the following was noticed in the course of the research held by the author: (a) more than 80 percent of the market uses basic techniques in acquiring customer loyalty such as permanently variable prices that depend on demand for the product or service throughout the year, bonus plans (such as bonus key that allows up to 4 percent reduction), and other techniques; and (b) nearly 10 percent of companies within the market use complex customer loyalty programs such as flexible discounts (sometimes up to 30 percent!) in a combination with weekly feedback bonuses, personal selection of a writer, order status check, 24/7 customer care, and other modes of customer attraction.
Factors that influence buyer’s choice
Among factors that have impact on customers’ choice in the market of custom writing services are price, quality of products and services (including exclusiveness, professionalism, and compliance with the requirements), and delivery time.
As to price and quality of a specific service, these two factors are the most important. It is vital for companies to balance between price and quality values since optimum correlation between these two categories benefits both a service provider and a customer. It is worth mentioning that there are companies that offer papers written by Ph.D.s for “as low as $8.95 per page”. Quality of a paper is directly related to its price and vice versa.
In respect of the delivery time, many companies offer urgent order accomplishment within 12 (and sometimes even 8) hours. Some of them limit the volume of an order to certain number of pages, though there are some companies that accept urgent orders without volume limitation.
Pricing
Custom writing services market has been experiencing a decline in prices lately. As it was mentioned earlier in this research, there had been fall in prices in 2003-2004 caused by sudden increase in market’s growth rates. By far, average fees are kept at the level of $15 per page for regular (5+ days) orders, $20 per page for urgent (24 to 48h) orders, and $30 a page for extremely urgent orders (within 24h).
There are companies offering custom-written papers half price as compared to average pricing. This fact may indicate that a company either hires instant workers from developing countries or is new to the market and provides such a low pricing policy in order to enter the full market and gain certain status.
Principles of operation
Principles of operation are the same throughout the industry. Intangible nature of products produced by competitors in the market implies single system of relationships between a company and a customer irrespective of an organization’s capacities.
Companies that offer custom-written papers (essays, term papers, case studies, literature reviews, executive summaries, dissertations) operate through their websites. Websites are supplied with all necessary and optional features such as credit card processing system (necessary), online customer service (optional), and auto-responder to provide existing customers with automated thank yous and newsletters, and other features.
A customer places an order, which is then forwarded to a writer. This step is omitted in small companies where two or three people wear several hats, e.g. one person could perform as an administrator, a writer, and a customer service representative. If there ARE a couple of writers working for a company, one of them accomplishes an order, which is then delivered to the customer via email.
It is worth noting that major attention is paid to a company’s website. It is common for a company producing custom-written papers to have as many webmasters as writers. Hard to believe? In your opinion, what is the correlation between webmasters/programmers and book reviewers working for Amazon.com?
Competitors and leaders
As mentioned above, the number of competitors in the market estimates nearly 200. Leadership in the market where companies offer custom-written papers of any kind is defined exclusively due to a company’s website’s ranking in various search engines. The most powerful search engines are Google, MSN, Yahoo!, Altavista, and Alltheweb. Moreover, websites are ranked in accordance to their content oriented at different key words. Thus, different websites could be leaders in the same search engine, though for different keywords or phrases.
Regulations
Being a subdivision of the ecommerce industry, custom writing services market is regulated by nothing but several codes like BBB Online that refer to web entrepreneurs. In general, ecommerce industry is poorly regulated.
Current trends within the industry and market success factors
Among current trends in the market particularly three aspects are worth mentioning: (a) constant fall in price; (b) constant increase in the number of competitors; and (c) diversification of services offered by companies.
Constant increase in the number of competitors is obviously caused by simplicity of operations and growing number of freelance writers who once decided to start out their own business.
Permanent fall in price is caused by growing number of competitors and similarity of services offered by companies in the market.
Finally, diversification of services is a logic consequence of the same increase in the number of competitors.

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How to Write Analytical or Argumentative Research Papers

Research papers can be easily differentiated from personal essays on the basis of the extensive research that is executed before the writing of such papers. Research papers thus act as that creative output in which the writers’ personal thoughts and opinions are merged with theories from already established sources.
However, the technique used in the presentation of the paper may make it fall under two broad categories: 1. Analytical, 2. Argumentative, in fact the strategy used by the writer to compose his paper will eventually determine the aim and purpose of the paper.
A detailed discussion of these two methods will clarify the concepts presented above:
1. Analytical Papers
In an analytical research paper, the aim is to attain a thorough expertise of the concept that is being presented so that it can be broken down and represented from the writers’ point of view.
In this form of the research paper, an individual approaches the research question without any pre-conceived notions and ideas about the subject at hand. Thereafter a careful survey of the opinions and views is undertaken. Ultimately when familiarity with the topic is achieved; a person is able to restructure and relocate the concepts that underlie the basic topic in his paper; the very essence of an analytical paper; critical contemplation and evaluation of the question at hand is necessary for an analytical paper.
2. Argumentative Papers
This type of a paper may also be termed a persuasive paper. Aside from critical thinking which is essential for the production of a quality paper, another familiar concept that dominates academic circles is the concept of an argument.
You may wish to read more at: Writing a Thesis
The basic difference from the former kind that qualifies the persuasive kind is that the paper takes a conscious stance and argues in favor of one of the arguments with cogent facts and points presented in its favor. The aim is to mould the reader’s mind in favor of one possible answer to the research question backed by reliable data and arguments.
To conclude; both approaches require logical thinking and smart evaluation alongside comprehensive research of the available sources. However the difference is created through the process of writing, analytical papers provide a more balanced approach where all views pertaining to the question are presented whereas argumentative papers debate in favor of one logical solution above the others.
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5 Tips For Writing Introductions For Research Papers

Writing the introduction of a research paper can prove to be difficult if you do not follow a systematic way of doing it. The truth is, it is easy to compose one as long as you follow a guide.
Presumably, you need information on how to write the introduction when you are preparing your research proposal. But there are researchers who prefer to write the introduction after they have finished the research activity.
The five tips below apply to the former situation, that is, for those who intend to come up with their research proposal.
1. Have a focus topic.
Writing a research paper requires a focus topic. State the specific issue that you would want to focus your research on.
For example, if you are interested on the extent of damage caused by marshland conversion into housing subdivisions, then your focus topic will revolve around this environmental concern. You can narrow this down further by looking into the value of ecological services lost due to marshland conversion into housing subdivisions.
Your focus topic should be reflected in the title of your research paper.
2. Prepare an outline.
An outline serves as the framework of your introduction. You can start by just randomly writing words or phrases of ideas that you intend to expound on and then arrange them logically.
For example, the introduction based on the focus topic above may be outlined thus:
 
  • ecological functions of marshlands
  • goods and services derived by man from marshlands
  • synthesis of literature on the value of marshlands
  • rate of conversion of marshlands for the past decade
  • impact of the conversion to wildlife living in the marshlands
 
Visualize a capital letter ‘V’ in your arrangement of the topics. This means that you write your introduction from a general to specific point of view or deductive perspective.
3. Point out the gaps in knowledge.
What has been done so far about your research paper’s concern? Did somebody attempt to study a similar concern before? If there are studies done ahead of you, explain why your study is different, unique and important.
Reserve the details of the review of literature section in the main body of your research paper. Your discussion in the introduction will just highlight the critical issues that need to be elucidated.
For example, you may write:
 

Although previous studies noted the adverse effects of wetland conversion into housing subdivisions, no attempt was made to impute monetary value to loss of ecological services. Hence, it is difficult to quantify the costs and benefits of wetland conversion to accommodate human needs for housing.

 
4. Write the objective/s of your research paper.
This is a critical part of your introduction. What do you really want to achieve in your research paper after having extensively reviewed relevant literature?
Based on the focus topic identified earlier, you might want to have the following as your objectives:
 
  • The objective of this research paper is to determine the monetary value of ecological services lost due to the conversion of marshlands into housing subdivisions.
  • This study attempts to identify the specific wildlife affected by housing development.
 
5. Explain how you will resolve the problem.
Since there is a gap in knowledge, what are the specific things you will do to bridge or fill in the gap? This part of your introduction will tell the reader how you intend to resolve the problem or meet the objectives. At the end of the study what are the expected outcomes?
Try to write as concisely as possible without leaving out important details. A two or three page introduction will be sufficient to explain the contents of your research paper. But the length, of course, entirely depends on the issue or concern you are investigating. Make your writing tight.
Essentially, the introduction is a summary or overview of the whole research paper. It provides information on what to expect when the paper is read in full.

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Reading Style Development for Research Papers

In order to develop a proper and effective reading style for research papers, it is important to know two things: First – what one should try and get out of the paper, and second – exactly where that information is located in that particular paper.
For effective and good research paper writing, one should know exactly how a typical research paper is brought together. For any research paper, there is always an undying expectation that a particular problem has been solved that no one else has published yet, in that literature.
But it is to be remembered that an idea alone cannot usually be adequate for publication of any research paper. In order to put an idea on paper, one should learn how to write a good research paper and also give a good research talk, go ahead and research skills in writing papers, on giving research talks. It is to be noted that writing research proposals are key skills, but they aren’t easy at all.
For reference, one can refer to a book – “How to write a good research paper”, by Simon Peyton Jones. Please note that before obtaining help from any agency for writing research papers, one should know the agency’s background.
It is always beneficial if the writers at the agency have helped out college students by writing the internet’s best research papers for a long period of time. It is also beneficial if the agency has a dedicated team of specialists working extremely hard year after year writing thousands of unique research papers for reference.
One will find lots of other companies that claim to be “experts” in writing every type of academic paper possible, but one should choose agencies who specialize in only writing research papers. Any agency’s specialized nature will make its service the most experienced, qualified source for perfectly formatted research papers in all citation styles, including MLA, APA, Turabian, Chicago, and may be even Harvard.

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Writing Research Papers (Part 1) – Focusing Your Research

Many students dread writing research papers! These assignments don’t have to keep you up all night stressing. Instead, use these tips to write effectively in less time by staying focused, using the syllabus, and writing fewer words. Your grade will improve, too! Here are some tips:
1. Use the syllabus. Re-read the syllabus and match your interests to course objectives. Use objectives to create a list of 3 or 4 possible topics. For example, if the syllabus says, “In this course, we will examine the relationship between pizza consumption and tomato crop size in America…” you might choose “pizza,” “American tomato harvest,” or “tomato crop size.” This gives your paper a solid base.
2. Target your research. Don’t spin your wheels! Scan the bibliographies of all course textbooks first. This will save you time. Look for articles that match 2 or 3 of your topics. For instance, if two of your choices are “American tomato harvest” and “average regional pizza consumption,” look for the words “pizza consumption,” “tomatoes,” or the number of pizza restaurants per U. S. region in the titles. You may even find ways to combine your topics to create a more interesting paper!
3. Skim abstracts and introductions. Locate 3 or 4 books, journal articles, or conference papers and skim read the abstracts and/ or introductions. (Maybe the State Tomato Growers Annual Conference papers or restaurant industry magazine articles in the example.) Don’t commit to a source just yet! Make sure it relates to your topic first. You’ll save time by skipping unrelated information.
4. Finalize your topic. Now that you’ve seen what’s available, boil your topics down to one sentence. Try to combine topics from your list in interesting ways. For example, maybe you want to compare pizza consumption rates to the poverty index in a state. From there you’ll be able to include information such as: average pizza consumption per large city, household income levels, tomato harvest size, and more in your paper! Either way, you’ve got a rock-solid base and tons of options!
5. Collect some evidence! Most instructors require 5 to 10 sources per research paper. Use the articles from step #3 above to locate the rest of your sources. Skim their bibliographies to find related material. Also, choose balanced sources. For example, maybe you’ll find articles saying people living in the Midwest eat more pizza on average than those living in the South. Other authors may say these regions have the same pizza consumption levels when you account for regional cultural differences. Include information from both sources to balance your evidence.
6. Read and take notes. Now that you have the sources you need, read them and take notes. Never read every word of the source! No article is exactly what you need. Instead, read titles, section headings, and the first sentences of paragraphs. Only read paragraphs or sections that relate to your specific topic. Write notes on interesting facts, figures, and findings while reading. Organize your notes by source as you go. (Use a separate piece of paper for each source to avoid confusion later.)
By following these steps, you will have an interesting topic that’s focused and relevant to your class. Your sources will be balanced and you’ll save time by concentrating your reading efforts on the most important evidence for your needs. In the end, you’ll have an organized set of notes to use in creating your research paper.
In part 2, you’ll learn how to use your notes to create an outline and write your paper!

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Research Papers, Thesis, Dissertations Shouldn’t Waste Our Time, Put Acknowledgements in Rear

One of the great things about reading research papers online these days is you don’t have to worry about getting the physical copy. It doesn’t waste paper by downloading a research report, and it is quite inexpensive to do so, and therefore it is a brilliant way for humanity to share information in the scientific endeavor. Still, time is of the essence and with more data and research material to go through it takes time, and time is critical as we have many challenges to solve in our society and civilization, that is if humanity is to succeed long-term.
Okay so let’s talk about something that’s been irking me with regard to online research papers. One thing I find fascinating is all of the fluff put into research papers, thesis, and dissertations. I am speaking about things like me acknowledgment section, where the preparer spends a good 1 1/2 to 2 pages thanking everyone under the sun, their academic institution, and everyone else.
Whereas it may help increase the validity of their work, pretending to stand on the shoulders of semi-giants, I also believe that these acknowledgment sections in research papers belong in the very back after all of the bibliography, references, and research data. I’m talking about the very last page of the research paper. Why you ask?
Because science is not supposed to be an endeavor of self-aggrandizement, or promoting oneself or one’s academic friends, it is about the research, not about the people. It is about the validity of the observations and findings. Further, because time is money, and time is wasted in reading all the acknowledgments, and because it takes a long time to scroll down the page, these things do not belong in the front of the research papers. It is aggravating to have to skip down 10 pages of nonsense, such as a notation that; “this page left intentionally blank” for instance, just to get to what you are looking for.
Perhaps we should also realize that our society is changing, people have less patience, and they want their information in 140 characters or less. When we search things online, we want the information now, we want it to be free, and we want exactly what we’re looking for. We need better search algorithms to give us that information, but we also need researchers and those that prepare the information to realize these facts. No one has time to listen to all that dribble, all that puffery, and all that ass-kissing.
Besides that, we know that the acknowledgment section is really put forth to maintain an academic elite club, one which may not be deserved on the far out niche of that science tree, we don’t need any more “leaf masters” as one of my research friends likes to call them. Please consider all this and think on it.

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